Posts Tagged ‘Fa’alupega

11
Mar
09

The Constitution And The Fa’alupega Of All Samoa: By Dr Kramer: 1897 to 1901.

THE CONSTITUTION AND THE FA’ALUPEGA OF ALL SAMOA

By Dr. Augustin Kramer: Translated by Dr. Theodore Verhaaren: Researched in Samoa from 1897 to 1901.

According to the history of the constitution presented above, it and the fa’alupega resulting from it, assume the following form: We find that the Kingdom of Samoa is linked to the possession of certain titles (four) which are conferred by the places of government of A’ana, Atua and Tuamasaga; and there in fact only certain families of orator chiefs have the right to confer these titles. The king, ruling at a given time, designates his successor (in most cases one of his sons), taking into consideration not only the latter’s personal qualities but also in particular his mother’s distinguished blood line, because he knows that in view of the wealth of his maternal family, the tumua (Leulumoega and Lufilufi) look with special favour upon such designation. If the successor has extensive family connections, being a tamaaiga “son of families”, he is certain to be chosen. If a paramount chief possesses the four titles Tui-A’ana, Tui-Atua, Gatoaitele and Tamasoali’i, he is called tafa’ifa and King of Samoa (tupu o Samoa). The title Malietoa has nothing to do with kingship, just as little as f.i. the title Mata’afa. Here the statements in Stuebel p.104 are not correct. By Samoa in this connection is meant Upolu including Manono and Apolima, Savai’i, and Tutuila including Aunu’u, while Manu’a does not participate in matters concerning western kings. Since moreover Atua’s administration of Tutuila is only rather loose and divided, the new regulations of the political situation (the assumption of a protectorate regime over Tutuila and Manu’a by the United States) will represent no significant changes in the matter of kingships as such. The king had nothing to do with the inner affairs of his kingdom. Each district governs itself, the orator chiefs thus authorised calling a meeting of the whole district at the place of government, as may be so reviewed in the fa ‘alupega of the principal places of Upolu. Each district is divided into a certain number of communities (village communities), which govern themselves in like manner. Even if the whole kingdom has need to establish a policy, the tumua calls a general fono, which in most cases takes place in Leulumoega. Since even in ancient times only Upolu and Savai’i were involved, the composition of this fono was and remains the same, as may be observed in the following fa’alupega, the greeting with which the first orator chief of Leulumoega named Alipia opens the great fono at Leulumoega, his place of government.

FA’ALUPEGA OF ALL SAMOA: THE GREAT HONOURS OF ALL SAMOA.

TULOUNA A TUMUA, (Greeted the Tumua. Leulumoega and Lufilufi, and a mark of respect here also applied to Afega, the place of government of the Tuamasaga district; otherwise normally Laumua in differentiation from the Tumua)
TULOUNA OE PULE, (Greeted you Pule. This designation refers to Safotulafai, the mightiest of the six places of government of Savaii and thus also to all of Savai’i)
TULOUNA ITU’AU MA ALATAUA, (Greeted Itu’au and Alataua. Refers to Safata and Faleata in Tuamasaga)
TULOUNA AIGA I LE TAI, (Greeted the family of the sea. Honouring designation for the little island of Manono)
TULOUNA A LE VA’A O FONOTI, (Greeted the ship of Fonoti. Honouring designation for all the districts, villages and chiefs by King Fonoti).

NOTE: This All Samoa Fa’alupega from Two Occasions: (1.) TUMUA MA PULE; from the four wars by warrior Goddess Nafanua for the titles, and Tupa’i to bestowed the four titles to Salamasina. (2.) AIGA I LE TAI, VA’A O FONOTI, and ITU’AU MA ALATAUA; from the war for the four titles of Tui-A’ana Faumuina’s Tupufia his three children; Fonoti, Samala’ulu and Va’afusuaga Tole’afoa. All of Samoa involved in this war, Fonoti won and was bestowed the four titles; by Samoan Customs. (the four titles: Tui-Atua, Tui-A’ana, Gatoaitele, and Vaetamasoali’i; as Tupu Tafa’ifa of Samoa).

Queen Salamasina’s line of succession to the High Titles: Tui-A’ana – Aiga o Salevalasi.
Tui-A’ana Tamalelagi was married to Vaetoefaga the daughter of the Tui-Toga, they begot Salamasina (Girl: adopted by her untie Levalasi, the founder of Aiga o Salevalasi).
1. Queen Salamasina (The first Tupu Tafa’ifa of Samoa to held all Four Titles: Tui-Atua, Tui-A’ana, Vaetamasoalii, and Gatoaitele) was married to Tapumanaia Tonumaipe’a, they begot Fofoaivaoese (girl: eldest “Feagaiga a le Aiga” and line of succession), and Tapumanaia Tapulesatele (boy).
2. Tuia’ana Tuiatua Fofoaivaoese was married to Tauatamaniula’aita, they begot Taufau (girl: eldest “Feagaiga a le Aiga” – wished for her line succession terminated), Sina (girl: second eldest – bestowed line of succession), and Asomua Lemalama (boy).
3. Tuia’ana Tuiatua Sina was married to Tito’iaivao, they begot Faumuina (boy: eldest “Alii o Aiga” Greeted as “Le Tupufia”).
4. Tuia’ana Tuiatua Faumuina le Tupufia was first married to Manalelei or Talaleomalie, they begot Fonoti (boy: eldest “Alii o Aiga” the second Tupu Tafa’ifa of Samoa – Won the War within his kin for the Four Title Kingship of Samoa).
4. Tuia’ana Tuiatua Faumuina le Tupufia was married again to Tu’umaleulua’ialii, they begot Samala’ulu (girl).
4. Tuia’ana Tuiatua Faumuina le Tupufia was married again to Atamulau, they begot Va’afusuaga Tole’afoa (boy: founder of family “Aiga Taulagi”).
5. King Fonoti (The second Tupu Tafa’ifa of Samoa to held all Four Titles: Tui-Atua, Tui-A’ana, Vaetamasoalii, and Gatoaitele) was first married to Fuatino of Satuala family, they begot Muagututi’a (boy: eldest “Alii o Aiga”).
5. King Fonoti (The Tupu Tafa’ifa of Samoa) was married again to Taeleasa’asa of Satuala family, they begot Falegaoti (girl: Greeted as “Ma’opu o Tuala ma Sala”).

King Fonoti Tupu Tafa’ifa of Samoa of his wish “Mavaega” with his younger brother Va’afusuaga Tole’afoa at the Palace of Mulinu’u Lalogafu’afu’a and Sepolata’emo at Lufilufi the Tumua Atua: So Tole’afoa came and sat down by the in-between posts at the rear of the Palace of Mulinu’u at Lufilufi Atua. Again the King spoke: Come, that I may determine our affairs so that your children and mine will fare well. The following were the words of King Fonoti: “The Four High Titles be for me and my children, while the Title Tonumaipe’a be for you and your children.” However, if you ever again reach for my things, you and your children shall be the prey of the creepers (in the grave) and water shall flow below you; if on the other hand I should reach for your things then I and my children shall be seized by the creepers and water shall flow under me.

6. Muagututi’a was first married to Poto, they begot Seutatia (Girl: eldest “Feagaiga a le Aiga” appointed to stay at the Palace of Mulinu’u Lalogafu’afu’a and Sepolata’emo at Lufilufi the Tumua in Atua – King Fonoti line and Title succession).
6. Muagututi’a was married again to Agaitafili, they begot Mata’utia (Boy), Fualau (Boy), and Talopatina (Girl).
6. Muagututi’a was married again to Taumata, they begot Fepulea’i (Boy), and Lagi (Girl).
6. Muagututi’a was married again to Fenunuivao, they had no children and adopted Fuiavailiili (Boy: son of Fuimaono and Oilau at Falealili. Bestowed the first “Tupua” Title and “Tama’aaiga” – Safenunuivao in Falefa).
7. Seutatia was married to Lilomaiava Nailevai’iliili, they begot Nofoatolu Vaeolenofoafia (Boy: eldest “Alii o Aiga” the first “Nofoatolu” Title bestowed at the Palace of Mulinu’u Lalogafu’afu’a and Sepolata’emo in Lufilufi Atua).
8. Nofoatolu Vaeolenofoafia was married to Sinavaiana, they begot Laufeti’iti’i (Boy: eldest “Alii o Aiga” bestowed “King Fonoti” Title and “Nofoatolu” Title at the Palace of Mulinu’u Lalogafu’afu’a and Sepolata’emo in Lufilufi Atua).
9. Fonoti Nofoatolu Laufeti’iti’i was married to Va’asa the daughter of Fiame le Sa’o Fa’apito Muagututi’a at the Sacred Family of Salevalasi in Lotofaga Atua, they begot Oliovaigafa (Boy: eldest “Alii o Aiga” bestowed King Fonoti Title. He passed away with no children), Ti’auliva’a (Boy: bestowed Nofoatolu Title), and Lagouta (girl) – [King Fonoti line and Title of Lotofaga Atua – At the Sacred family of Salevalasi].

THE TWO CAPITALS TUMUA: LEULUMOEGA AND LUFILUFI

NU’UAUSALA: the royal seat of LEULUMOEGA (Tumua – the principal place), the land of the Tui-A’ana, where now the English mission stands. Nu’uausala “the extraordinary place” similar to Tui-Manua’s Fale’ula no longer exists in Leulumoega since the English missionaries settled on it. Malae o Vavau; the name of the old inland Malae of Leulumoega, today is called Ma’auga.

MULINU’U: the royal seat of LUFILUFI (Tumua – the principal place), the land of the Tui-Atua. Falenu’utupu Area and Manuo’s Malae. The fine mats which are heaped up in the Orator Chief’s House and are there distributed.

TUMUA MA PULE, ITU’AU MA ALATAUA, AIGA I LE TAI, MA LE VA’A O FONOTI, TAMA MA A LATOU AIGA PO’O AIGA MA A LATOU TAMA.

(”Tama Ma a Latou Aiga po’o Aiga Ma a Latou Tama”; Tama-A-Aiga “Sons of Families”: an addition to as the current fa’alupega of All Samoa after the Colonial period.)

ABOUT EACH ISLAND OF SAMOA

The TUI-MANU’A was the King of Manu’a. UPOLU is called the MOTU O PAPA, because they have The Four Papa Titles, TAFA’IFA which are: TUI-ATUA, TUI-A’ANA, GATOAITELE, VAETAMASOALI’I. SAVAI’I is called MOTU O AO, because they have the Ao Titles which are, TAGALOALAGI (Safune), TONUMAIPE’A (Alataua), LAULUSA (Salemuliaga), ULUPOAO (Puleia), FA’ASUA’IAU (Palauli- Papa), FETAFUNE (Samauga-Mata’utu), LILOMAIAVA (Palauli) and the PULE ONO I SALAFAI, (1) Safotulafai-Fuifatu. (2) Saleaula-Vaitu’utu’u. (3) Safotu-Finao. (4) Asau-Matiamatia’ituau. (5) Satupaitea-Faletoi. (6) Palauli-Vailoa. TUTUILA is called MOTU O TAEMA, because Taema has family there, and it was also called MOTU O SALAI’A, because Taema gave the island of Tutuila to SALAI’A, the daughter of Malietoa Fuaoleto’elau.

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13
Nov
08

The New All Samoa Fa’alupega Changed in 1912.

According to the history book: ‘The Making Of Modern Samoa’ by Malama Meleisea.

In 1912, One of the changes, the German administration had apparently achieved its long-term objectives of understanding the traditional forces in Samoa politics, while maintaining a semblance of local participation in government. There was no more TUPU, nor even ALI’I SILI, but the two Fautua were appointed. Tumua and Pule were for a time silenced, all decisions on matters affecting lands and titles were under the control of the Governor. To complete the process, the Fa’alupega for all Samoa was revised. The Fa’alupega which had been nationally accepted from at least the late 19th century (and probably for much longer than that) was as follows:

“Tulouna a Tumua ma Pule,
Tulouna a Itu’au ma Alataua,
Tulouna a Aiga-i-le-Tai,
Ma le Va’a-o-Fonoti,
Tulouna a Tama ma a latou aiga
Po’o aiga ma a latou tama.”

This Fa’alupega firstly recognized the authority and identity of principal districts of Samoa through their spokesmen – Tumua ma Pule, Itu’au ma Alataua, Aiga I le Tai, ma le Va’a o Fonoti – and the highest titles which were bestowed by these groups. It concludes with the recognition of the great maximal descent groups of Samoa and their “sons” who had been chosen to hold the highest titles.

The new Fa’alupega of German Samoa apparently required for Malietoa Tanunafili and Tupua Tamasese to be sworn on oath and to change this Samoa’s historical Fa’alupega to the new fa’alupega as follows:

“Tulouna a lana Maiesitete le Kaisa o le tupu mamalu o lo tatou malo kasialika aoao.
Tulouna a lana afioga le kovana kasialika o le sui o le kaisa I Samoa nei.
Susu mai Malietoa, Afio mai Tupua
Ua fa’amanatuiana ai aiga e lua I o oulua tofiga Kasialika o le Fautua.
Tulouna a le vasega a Faipule Kasialika o e lagolago malosi I le Malo.
Afifio mai le nofo a vasega o tofiga Kasialika o e usu fita I le tautua I le malo.”

“Aiga e lua” referring here to the two fautuas Malietoa and Tupua is a classic example of the changes to the original Samoa that got carried through by New Zealand period of ruling Samoa right down to this present time.

Aiga E Lua O Samoa: The Two Main Families Of Samoa: Le Aiga Pa’ia o Sa-Levalasi Lotofaga Atua, ma le aiga fa’alagilagi Le Aiga Sa-Tuala.

This mavaega had already been pronounced by Queen Tupu Tafa’ifa Salamasina of the two families, Le Aiga Sa-Levalasi and Le Aiga Sa-Tuala, and their royal mats are called ‘Pulu’ and ‘Leuleu’.

IT IS OBVIOUS THAT THIS WILL BE WHERE THE CHANGES MADE TO THE ORIGINAL SAMOA FOR THERE OWN BENEFIT OF THE GERMAN GOVERNOR AND THE TWO FAUTUAS! AND ONE THING GOT CHANGED BACK TO ITS ORIGINAL WAS THE ‘ALL OF SAMOA FA’ALUPEGA’, BUT THE REST MAY LIES IN WHAT HAS BEEN WRITTEN  AND GIVEN AS SAMOA’S HISTORY TO WHAT IT IS THERE TODAY. WOULD BE THE REASON ALSO WHY THERE ARE MANY CASES ON DIFFERENT VERSIONS TO AN EVENT FROM THE HISTORY OF SAMOA.

O Le Mavaega A Tamasese

O Tamasese, na tafa fo’i, sa faia o lona mavaega i Mulinuu i Lufilufi. Ua fai atu o lona afioga, ia potopoto Aloalii ma Tumua ma lona atalii o le Alofi. Ona potopoto mai lea.

Na fai atu ai lea o lona afioga ia Aloalii ma Tumua, ma le Alofi lona atalii; fa’alogo mai ia; le feagaiga lenei sa au faia i le va a le Malotetele Siamani ma Tumua, ia e outou alofa, ia outou tausi lelei i ai. Ia outou alofa i le Malo Siamani pei o lona alofa mai ia te a’u. Aua ne’i outou savali i se isi ala. Ia outou savali tonu le ala na’u fa’asino atu, ona fa’amamalu mai o lona afioga o le Kaisa Siamani ia te a’u.

Ia tu mau pea o le fealofani i le va a outou, Tumua ma Aloalii, ma le Malo Siamani. Ia tu mau e outou usiusita’i lelei i le finagalo le Kaisa Siamani ia o’o lava i outou fanau. Ia faapea fo’i e outou aiga, aiga Savaii, aiga Upolu ia outou fa’alogo lelei fo’i i le feagaiga ua osia. Ua lalata aso, ona iai i vaivai. Ia outou faia pei sa au faia. Le Alofi, Tamasese lea.

Tamasese ua fa’afeagai ma Tumua ma Aloalii. Ia tausi lelei fo’i o le feagaiga ma Siamani. Ia usiusita’i i ai, o’o i ai se mea finagalo i ai o le Malo Siamani, o’o i se faigata, fa’apea fo’i i se mea faigofie, ia e outou tali o lena mea uma. Ia outou fealofani pei ona po nei.

Tumua e ma Aloalii! Afai ua agaleaga Malietoa i Tumua, ia agaleagaina iai fo’i fa’atasi ma Aloalii. Aua ne’i sese se tasi. Ia outou liliu fa’atasi! Faitalia e le Atua, pe alofagia e outou i le Malotetele Siamani.

Click on the following link below to view related article:

Kingdom By the Three Powers And The Kingdom by Samoan Customs

PICTURE OF THE GERMAN GOVERNOR IN SAMOA

project777

05
Aug
08

The New All Samoa Fa’alupega Changed in 1912

According to the history book: ‘The Making Of Modern Samoa’ by Malama Meleisea.

In 1912, One of the changes, the German administration had apparently achieved its long-term objectives of understanding the traditional forces in Samoa politics, while maintaining a semblance of local participation in government. There was no more TUPU, nor even ALI’I SILI, but the two Fautua were appointed. Tumua and Pule were for a time silenced, all decisions on matters affecting lands and titles were under the control of the Governor. To complete the process, the Fa’alupega for all Samoa was revised. The Fa’alupega which had been nationally accepted from at least the late 19th century (and probably for much longer than that) was as follows:

“Tulouna a Tumua ma Pule,
Tulouna a Itu’au ma Alataua,
Tulouna a Aiga-i-le-Tai,
Ma le Va’a-o-Fonoti,
Tulouna a Tama ma a latou aiga
Po’o aiga ma a latou tama.”

This Fa’alupega firstly recognized the authority and identity of principal districts of Samoa through their spokesmen – Tumua ma Pule, Itu’au ma Alataua, Aiga I le Tai, ma le Va’a o Fonoti – and the highest titles which were bestowed by these groups. It concludes with the recognition of the great maximal descent groups of Samoa and their “sons” who had been chosen to hold the highest titles. 

The new Fa’alupega of German Samoa apparently required for Malietoa Tanunafili and Tupua Tamasese to be sworn on oath and to change this Samoa’s historical Fa’alupega to the new fa’alupega as follows:

“Tulouna a lana Maiesitete le Kaisa o le tupu mamalu o lo tatou malo kasialika aoao.
Tulouna a lana afioga le kovana kasialika o le sui o le kaisa I Samoa nei.
Susu mai Malietoa, Afio mai Tupua
Ua fa’amanatuiana ai aiga e lua I o oulua tofiga Kasialika o le Fautua.
Tulouna a le vasega a Faipule Kasialika o e lagolago malosi I le Malo.
Afifio mai le nofo a vasega o tofiga Kasialika o e usu fita I le tautua I le malo.”

“Aiga e lua” referring here to the two fautuas Malietoa and Tupua is a classic example of the changes to the original Samoa that got carried through by New Zealand period of ruling Samoa right down to this present time.

Aiga E Lua O Samoa: The Two Main Families Of Samoa: Le Aiga Pa’ia o Sa-Levalasi Lotofaga Atua, ma le aiga fa’alagilagi Le Aiga Sa-Tuala.

This mavaega had already been pronounced by Queen Tupu Tafa’ifa Salamasina of the two families, Le Aiga Sa-Levalasi and Le Aiga Sa-Tuala, and their royal mats are called ‘Pulu’ and ‘Leuleu’.

IT IS OBVIOUS THAT THIS WILL BE WHERE THE CHANGES MADE TO THE ORIGINAL SAMOA FOR THERE OWN BENEFIT OF THE GERMAN GOVERNOR AND THE TWO FAUTUAS! AND ONE THING GOT CHANGED BACK TO ITS ORIGINAL WAS THE ‘ALL OF SAMOA FA’ALUPEGA’, BUT THE REST MAY LIES IN WHAT HAS BEEN WRITTEN AND GIVEN AS SAMOA’S HISTORY TO WHAT IT IS THERE TODAY. WOULD BE THE REASON ALSO WHY THERE ARE MANY CASES ON DIFFERENT VERSIONS TO AN EVENT FROM THE HISTORY OF SAMOA.




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