The Constitution And The Fa’alupega Of All Samoa: By Dr Kramer: 1897 to 1901.


By Dr. Augustin Kramer: Translated by Dr. Theodore Verhaaren: Researched in Samoa from 1897 to 1901.

According to the history of the constitution presented above, it and the fa’alupega resulting from it, assume the following form: We find that the Kingdom of Samoa is linked to the possession of certain titles (four) which are conferred by the places of government of A’ana, Atua and Tuamasaga; and there in fact only certain families of orator chiefs have the right to confer these titles. The king, ruling at a given time, designates his successor (in most cases one of his sons), taking into consideration not only the latter’s personal qualities but also in particular his mother’s distinguished blood line, because he knows that in view of the wealth of his maternal family, the tumua (Leulumoega and Lufilufi) look with special favour upon such designation. If the successor has extensive family connections, being a tamaaiga “son of families”, he is certain to be chosen. If a paramount chief possesses the four titles Tui-A’ana, Tui-Atua, Gatoaitele and Tamasoali’i, he is called tafa’ifa and King of Samoa (tupu o Samoa). The title Malietoa has nothing to do with kingship, just as little as f.i. the title Mata’afa. Here the statements in Stuebel p.104 are not correct. By Samoa in this connection is meant Upolu including Manono and Apolima, Savai’i, and Tutuila including Aunu’u, while Manu’a does not participate in matters concerning western kings. Since moreover Atua’s administration of Tutuila is only rather loose and divided, the new regulations of the political situation (the assumption of a protectorate regime over Tutuila and Manu’a by the United States) will represent no significant changes in the matter of kingships as such. The king had nothing to do with the inner affairs of his kingdom. Each district governs itself, the orator chiefs thus authorised calling a meeting of the whole district at the place of government, as may be so reviewed in the fa ‘alupega of the principal places of Upolu. Each district is divided into a certain number of communities (village communities), which govern themselves in like manner. Even if the whole kingdom has need to establish a policy, the tumua calls a general fono, which in most cases takes place in Leulumoega. Since even in ancient times only Upolu and Savai’i were involved, the composition of this fono was and remains the same, as may be observed in the following fa’alupega, the greeting with which the first orator chief of Leulumoega named Alipia opens the great fono at Leulumoega, his place of government.


TULOUNA A TUMUA, (Greeted the Tumua. Leulumoega and Lufilufi, and a mark of respect here also applied to Afega, the place of government of the Tuamasaga district; otherwise normally Laumua in differentiation from the Tumua)
TULOUNA OE PULE, (Greeted you Pule. This designation refers to Safotulafai, the mightiest of the six places of government of Savaii and thus also to all of Savai’i)
TULOUNA ITU’AU MA ALATAUA, (Greeted Itu’au and Alataua. Refers to Safata and Faleata in Tuamasaga)
TULOUNA AIGA I LE TAI, (Greeted the family of the sea. Honouring designation for the little island of Manono)
TULOUNA A LE VA’A O FONOTI, (Greeted the ship of Fonoti. Honouring designation for all the districts, villages and chiefs by King Fonoti).

NOTE: This All Samoa Fa’alupega from Two Occasions: (1.) TUMUA MA PULE; from the four wars by warrior Goddess Nafanua for the titles, and Tupa’i to bestowed the four titles to Salamasina. (2.) AIGA I LE TAI, VA’A O FONOTI, and ITU’AU MA ALATAUA; from the war for the four titles of Tui-A’ana Faumuina’s Tupufia his three children; Fonoti, Samala’ulu and Va’afusuaga Tole’afoa. All of Samoa involved in this war, Fonoti won and was bestowed the four titles; by Samoan Customs. (the four titles: Tui-Atua, Tui-A’ana, Gatoaitele, and Vaetamasoali’i; as Tupu Tafa’ifa of Samoa).

Queen Salamasina’s line of succession to the High Titles: Tui-A’ana – Aiga o Salevalasi.
Tui-A’ana Tamalelagi was married to Vaetoefaga the daughter of the Tui-Toga, they begot Salamasina (Girl: adopted by her untie Levalasi, the founder of Aiga o Salevalasi).
1. Queen Salamasina (The first Tupu Tafa’ifa of Samoa to held all Four Titles: Tui-Atua, Tui-A’ana, Vaetamasoalii, and Gatoaitele) was married to Tapumanaia Tonumaipe’a, they begot Fofoaivaoese (girl: eldest “Feagaiga a le Aiga” and line of succession), and Tapumanaia Tapulesatele (boy).
2. Tuia’ana Tuiatua Fofoaivaoese was married to Tauatamaniula’aita, they begot Taufau (girl: eldest “Feagaiga a le Aiga” – wished for her line succession terminated), Sina (girl: second eldest – bestowed line of succession), and Asomua Lemalama (boy).
3. Tuia’ana Tuiatua Sina was married to Tito’iaivao, they begot Faumuina (boy: eldest “Alii o Aiga” Greeted as “Le Tupufia”).
4. Tuia’ana Tuiatua Faumuina le Tupufia was first married to Manalelei or Talaleomalie, they begot Fonoti (boy: eldest “Alii o Aiga” the second Tupu Tafa’ifa of Samoa – Won the War within his kin for the Four Title Kingship of Samoa).
4. Tuia’ana Tuiatua Faumuina le Tupufia was married again to Tu’umaleulua’ialii, they begot Samala’ulu (girl).
4. Tuia’ana Tuiatua Faumuina le Tupufia was married again to Atamulau, they begot Va’afusuaga Tole’afoa (boy: founder of family “Aiga Taulagi”).
5. King Fonoti (The second Tupu Tafa’ifa of Samoa to held all Four Titles: Tui-Atua, Tui-A’ana, Vaetamasoalii, and Gatoaitele) was first married to Fuatino of Satuala family, they begot Muagututi’a (boy: eldest “Alii o Aiga”).
5. King Fonoti (The Tupu Tafa’ifa of Samoa) was married again to Taeleasa’asa of Satuala family, they begot Falegaoti (girl: Greeted as “Ma’opu o Tuala ma Sala”).

King Fonoti Tupu Tafa’ifa of Samoa of his wish “Mavaega” with his younger brother Va’afusuaga Tole’afoa at the Palace of Mulinu’u Lalogafu’afu’a and Sepolata’emo at Lufilufi the Tumua Atua: So Tole’afoa came and sat down by the in-between posts at the rear of the Palace of Mulinu’u at Lufilufi Atua. Again the King spoke: Come, that I may determine our affairs so that your children and mine will fare well. The following were the words of King Fonoti: “The Four High Titles be for me and my children, while the Title Tonumaipe’a be for you and your children.” However, if you ever again reach for my things, you and your children shall be the prey of the creepers (in the grave) and water shall flow below you; if on the other hand I should reach for your things then I and my children shall be seized by the creepers and water shall flow under me.

6. Muagututi’a was first married to Poto, they begot Seutatia (Girl: eldest “Feagaiga a le Aiga” appointed to stay at the Palace of Mulinu’u Lalogafu’afu’a and Sepolata’emo at Lufilufi the Tumua in Atua – King Fonoti line and Title succession).
6. Muagututi’a was married again to Agaitafili, they begot Mata’utia (Boy), Fualau (Boy), and Talopatina (Girl).
6. Muagututi’a was married again to Taumata, they begot Fepulea’i (Boy), and Lagi (Girl).
6. Muagututi’a was married again to Fenunuivao, they had no children and adopted Fuiavailiili (Boy: son of Fuimaono and Oilau at Falealili. Bestowed the first “Tupua” Title and “Tama’aaiga” – Safenunuivao in Falefa).
7. Seutatia was married to Lilomaiava Nailevai’iliili, they begot Nofoatolu Vaeolenofoafia (Boy: eldest “Alii o Aiga” the first “Nofoatolu” Title bestowed at the Palace of Mulinu’u Lalogafu’afu’a and Sepolata’emo in Lufilufi Atua).
8. Nofoatolu Vaeolenofoafia was married to Sinavaiana, they begot Laufeti’iti’i (Boy: eldest “Alii o Aiga” bestowed “King Fonoti” Title and “Nofoatolu” Title at the Palace of Mulinu’u Lalogafu’afu’a and Sepolata’emo in Lufilufi Atua).
9. Fonoti Nofoatolu Laufeti’iti’i was married to Va’asa the daughter of Fiame le Sa’o Fa’apito Muagututi’a at the Sacred Family of Salevalasi in Lotofaga Atua, they begot Oliovaigafa (Boy: eldest “Alii o Aiga” bestowed King Fonoti Title. He passed away with no children), Ti’auliva’a (Boy: bestowed Nofoatolu Title), and Lagouta (girl) – [King Fonoti line and Title of Lotofaga Atua – At the Sacred family of Salevalasi].


NU’UAUSALA: the royal seat of LEULUMOEGA (Tumua – the principal place), the land of the Tui-A’ana, where now the English mission stands. Nu’uausala “the extraordinary place” similar to Tui-Manua’s Fale’ula no longer exists in Leulumoega since the English missionaries settled on it. Malae o Vavau; the name of the old inland Malae of Leulumoega, today is called Ma’auga.

MULINU’U: the royal seat of LUFILUFI (Tumua – the principal place), the land of the Tui-Atua. Falenu’utupu Area and Manuo’s Malae. The fine mats which are heaped up in the Orator Chief’s House and are there distributed.


(”Tama Ma a Latou Aiga po’o Aiga Ma a Latou Tama”; Tama-A-Aiga “Sons of Families”: an addition to as the current fa’alupega of All Samoa after the Colonial period.)


The TUI-MANU’A was the King of Manu’a. UPOLU is called the MOTU O PAPA, because they have The Four Papa Titles, TAFA’IFA which are: TUI-ATUA, TUI-A’ANA, GATOAITELE, VAETAMASOALI’I. SAVAI’I is called MOTU O AO, because they have the Ao Titles which are, TAGALOALAGI (Safune), TONUMAIPE’A (Alataua), LAULUSA (Salemuliaga), ULUPOAO (Puleia), FA’ASUA’IAU (Palauli- Papa), FETAFUNE (Samauga-Mata’utu), LILOMAIAVA (Palauli) and the PULE ONO I SALAFAI, (1) Safotulafai-Fuifatu. (2) Saleaula-Vaitu’utu’u. (3) Safotu-Finao. (4) Asau-Matiamatia’ituau. (5) Satupaitea-Faletoi. (6) Palauli-Vailoa. TUTUILA is called MOTU O TAEMA, because Taema has family there, and it was also called MOTU O SALAI’A, because Taema gave the island of Tutuila to SALAI’A, the daughter of Malietoa Fuaoleto’elau.


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